About this blog

After seeing news articles say there was NO EVIDENCE that essential oils work for Ebola and hearing that the FDA has not approved any oils for any sort of disease, I decided to see what was out there and expose the essential oil industry. Instead, I found a mountain of peer reviewed studies for all kinds of serious diseases saying how well they work, even on Ebola! So, I decided to set up this blog to post a few studies a week to expose the real frauds and show the world what NO EVIDENCE looks like.
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Colon Cancer and Components of Rose, Palmarose and Citronella

Geraniola Component of Plant Essential OilsInhibits Growth and Polyamine Biosynthesis in Human Colon Cancer Cells


Geraniol and other monoterpenes found in essential oils of fruits and herbs have been suggested to represent a new class of agents for cancer chemoprevention. Aa first step in clarifying the mode of action of geraniol on colon carcinogenesis, we studied its effects on the growth of a human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2). Geraniol (400 μM) caused a 70% inhibition of cell growth, with cells accumulatinin the S transition phase of the cell cycle, and concomitant inhibition of DNA synthesis. No signs of cytotoxicity or apoptosis were detected. Geraniol caused a 50% decrease of ornithine decarboxylase activity, a key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, which is enhancein cancer growth. This led to a 40% reduction of the intracellular pool of putrescine. Geraniol also activated the intracellular catabolism of polyamines, indicated by enhancepolyamine acetylation. These observations indicate thapolyamine metabolism is presumably a target in the antiproliferative properties of geraniol.
Numerous epidemiological studies revealed that high consumption of fruits, vegetables, and other plant products may reduce the incidence and development of colorectacancer (Tuyns et al., 1988Steinmetz and Potter, 1991Steinmetz et al., 1994). Since colorectacancerare difficult to treat with existing therapeutic modalities, identifying dietary phytochemicals that have antitumor activity and investigating their mechanisms of action may lead to significant advancein the prevention of human cancer (Block et al., 1992). The monoterpenes, found in essential oils of citrus fruits, cherry, mint, and herbs, are non-nutritive dietary microconstituents mainly responsible for the distinctive fragrance of many plants. They are used as flavor additives in food, beverages, and perfumes.
Recents studies have shown that monoterpenes exert antitumor activities and suggest that these componentare a new class of cancer chemopreventive agents (Elson and Yu, 1994Kelloff et al., 1996Crowell, 1999). Limonene, a main constituent of orange and citrus peel oils, has been reported to exert antitumor activity against mammary gland, lung, liver, stomach, and skin cancerin rodents (Elegbede et al., 1986Wattenberg and Coccia, 1991Crowell and Gould, 1994Mills et al., 1995Kawamori et al., 1996). Similarly, perillyl alcohol, a hydroxylated limonene analog, exhibits chemopreventive activity against liver, mammary gland, pancreas, and colon cancerin rodents (Haaand Gould, 1994Stark et al., 1995Reddy et al., 1997). More recently, geraniolaacyclic monoterpene alcohol found in lemongrass and aromatic herb oils, has been shown to exert in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity against murine leukemia, hepatomaand melanoma cells (Shoff et al., 1991Yu et al., 1995Burke et al., 1997).
No information is available on the potential effects of geraniol on colon cancer. Therefore, we examined its effect on Caco-2 cell growtha human colonic cancer cell line. We also measured the effect of geraniol on polyamine metabolism, which is known to be enhancein cancer cells and which might be one of the targets of the chemopreventive action of geraniol (Seiler et al., 1998).   

...In conclusion, our results are the first to describe a potent antiproliferative effect of geraniol on the growth of human colon cancer cells. Geraniol has no cytotoxic effect, is mainly cytostatic, and inhibits DNA synthesis, leading to the accumulation of Caco-2 cells in the S phase. Inhibition of ODC expression may be one of several targets involved in the antiproliferative effects of geraniol. However, it remains to be determined whether polyamine depletion by itself is directly responsible for the observed antiproliferative effect. The low toxicity of geraniol makes it attractive for in vivo studies in colon cancer prevention and treatment.

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